Context 152 - November 2017

26 C O N T E X T 1 5 2 : N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 7 asphalt (also asphalt concrete ) 1 A street paving mate- rial made of asphalt (bitumen) and mineral aggregate (such as sand or stone-dust). The material makes up the large majority of all urban paved surfaces. 2 The black, viscous form of petroleum, found in natural deposits or made by refining, used in making the paving material. Compare tarmac. asphalt chip sealing Rolling a layer of aggregate into a base of asphalt emulsion binder to improve tyre grip and road wear, or alter the appearance or reflectiv- ity. Using light-coloured aggregate can increase reflectance and reduce warming, or a local stone can help the road fit in better with its surroundings. Belgian block A cubical paving block; a sett. bitmac The road surface. From bit umen and mac adam. blockhead An enthusiast for wood-block paving. A group of people who restored Chicago’s last complete wood-block alley (originally constructed in 1909) in 2011 called themselves ‘blockheads’. Boyington paving A form of wood-block street paving. It was introduced in Chicago in 1868. cassie (Scotland) 1 A paving stone, sett or wooden paving block. See wood-block paving. 2 A cobbled or setted street or pavement. 4 v. To pave. The word comes from causeway . causeway A raised road or path across water or low-lying land, sometimes including flood arches. causey 1 n. (mainly Scotland and the north of England) A street or pavement, usually one paved with cobbles rather than flags. 2 A cobble. 3 n. A causeway. 4 v. To pave, particularly down the centre of the street. Example: ‘By [the] mid 1700s most of the streets in the Old Town were setted or “causeyed” (applied to where they were paved down the middle with drains on either side)’ (from Edinburgh Standards for Streets , 2006). The word comes from causeway . See also crown o’ the causey. causey edge (Yorkshire) A kerb. cobble (also, especially US, cobblestone ) A naturally rounded stone (usually from rivers, fields or the sea) used for paving and walls. setts are often popularily called cobbles (see cobbled). cobbled (of a street) 1 Paved with cobbles. 2 Paved with setts. When people refer to ‘cobbled streets’ they are often referring to streets paved with setts. crib-stane (Scots) A kerbstone. crown o’ the causey (Scots) The middle of the street. The 2006 guide Edinburgh Standards for Streets writes that in Edinburgh’s Old Town ‘crowns of the causeway (a ridge or crown along the centre of a road) was [sic] removed and levelled along with other subsequent improvements in the late 1700s’. See causey. cube A square sett. dropped kerb/curb (UK/US) A short stretch of kerb that has been lowered to allow vehicles to drive across the pavement and park in driveways which used to be front gardens; a section of kerb lowered to let people in wheelchairs or with buggies to cross the road. dropper kerb/curb The kerbstones required to create a dropped kerb. encaustic tile One whose pattern is created by using different colours of clay, rather than by printing or glazing. flagstone (also flag ) A flat slab of stone, often used for paving. granolithic paving Amaterial composed of cement and aggregate, used for paving. gridder A person who spots drain covers, coal-hole covers and other similar metalwork on streets and pavements as a hobby. horonized paving (Scotland) A paved surface consisting of irregular fragments of stone (usually by-products of the manufacture of setts or cobbles) set in cement or another binder. Such paving is often used to cover small, irregular areas and on slopes, where the rough surface provides good grip. kerb (also curb ) The edge of a pavement, often marked by a kerbstone (curbstone); a line of kerbstones where footway and carriageway meet. From the Latin curvus meaning bent, by way of the French courbe. knucklebone pavement One surfaced with the knuckle bones of animals. ledger (also ledger stone ) A flat stone slab, usually inscribed, covering a grave or tomb. macadam 1 (also stone macadam ) A type of road construction with a smooth, hard surface, in which layers of compacted, crushed stone are bound with stone dust. It was pioneered by the engineer and road-builder John McAdam ( 1756–1836). 2 (also bitumen macadam ) A similar type of road A glossary of paving This is a selection of entries from the 12,000 in the forthcoming second edition of The Dictionary of Urbanism by Rob Cowan. Words in small capitals are cross-references to other entries. Cobbles in Islington, London (Photo: Rob Cowan)